Holism is the idea that properties should be viewed as wholes, not as a collection of parts. This includes the view that a system functions as a whole and it cannot be completely understood solely in terms of it’s component. A definite emphasis on a particular object in an artwork is not necessary, an artist may choose to focus on the entire surface of a composition over individual elements.
Katy W.M. Austin City Limits’ Crowd. 2008
In the photo above, there is an emphasis over the whole multitude of concert-goers rather than on a specific individual.
Life is not always orderly or rational. To express this aspect of life, artists choose to underplay components of their work and let the elements appear at least superficially uncontrolled and free from of any formal design restraints.
Variety can be created through: form, size, color and gesture.
A virst impression of George Herms’The Librarian.1960. might be of chaotic materials hanging together. However, visual unity is achieved through the strong cross-like structure and limited colors used.
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Sometimes the aim of design is not to communicate form and content, but to merely showcase visual pleasure through the use of bright eye-catching colors and textures. However, even decorative art such as a piece of jewelry, has the potential to communicate a point of view